Sanitation: financial resources alone do not solve problems

  • Sanitation: financial resources alone do not solve problems
    作者
    • Joisa C. Dutra

      She holds a PhD in Economics from Fundação Getulio Vargas and was a director of the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) between 2005 and 2009. She is a Visiting Professor at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and a lecturer at t Fundação Getulio Vargas. She has experience in Economics, working mainly in the following areas: Regulatory Economics, Energy Economics, Auctions, Experimental Economics, Organizational Theory and Contracts. She is the director of FGV’s Center for Regulation and Infrastructure Studies (FGV CERI).

    • Raquel M. S. Freitas

      She holds a bachelor’s degree in Economics from the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (2014). She is currently an advisor at the Secretariat for Evaluation and Information Management at the Ministry of Social Development (SAGI/MDS).

    • Irene Altafin

      She holds a degree in Chemical Engineering from the Federal University of Uberlândia (1976), specialization in Waterworks Association from the Japan Waterworks Association (1986), specialization in Environmental Management from Tufts University (1993), specialization in Design and Management from the Inter-American Development Bank (1997) and Masters in Water and Waste Engineering from Loughborough University (1982). She is currently advisor to the Board of Directors of Brazil’s National Water Agency. She has experience in the area of Sanitary Engineering, with an emphasis on Environmental Sanitation. She works mainly on the following subject areas: water supply and sanitation.

摘要

To contribute to universal access to basic sanitation in Brazil, this study involved a review of the literature and analysis of data on the historical evolution of the sanitation sector, as well as a quantitative analysis of the sector based on public and private data.

The conclusion was that, despite the enactment of the Sanitation Law in 2007 and the provision of resources through the Growth Acceleration Program, the sector features a series of institutional, planning and regulatory inefficiencies. The results have fallen short of initial expectations of increased coverage, largely because, in general, the execution of sanitation construction work is slow. In spite of an increase in federal government resources assigned for sanitation (R$8.9 billion per year between 2007 and 2015), there has only been modest growth in water and sewerage service coverage, and it has not met the sector’s expectations. The study shows that economic regulation ought to be improved in order to meet the goal of universalizing the provision of high-quality services for reasonable prices. The expansion of sanitation infrastructure in Brazil depends not only on supplying more financial resources, but also efficiency gains in the development and execution of plans. It is necessary to improve planning and monitoring of sanitation construction projects in Brazil. This timely study presents evidence of the importance of continuing with investigations into the effectiveness of investments in the sanitation sector. The authors propose expanding the range of samples and, above all, evaluating processes for accessing financial resources and implementing contracts, identifying critical points and proposing mechanisms to solve problems.